Adelman, Maurice (1977). "My Education in Mineral (Especially Oil) Economics", Annual Review of Energy and the Environment. 22:13-46.
Adelman M.A. and Lynch M.C. (1997) Fixed View of Resources Limits Creates Undue Pessimism, Oil and Gas Journal, pp. 56-60, 7 April 1997.
Ahmed, Kulsum (1994). Renewable Energy Technologies: a Review of the Status and Costs of Selected Technologies, World Bank Technical Paper no. 240, Energy Series.
Akimoto, H., and Narita, H., 1994. Distribution of SO2, NOx, and CO2 emissions from fuel combustion and industrial activities in Asia with 1x1 degree resolution. Atmospheric Environment 28(2):213-225.
Alcamo, J., E. Kreileman and R. Leemans (Eds.) (1998). Global change scenarios of the 21st century. Results from the IMAGE 2.1 model. Elseviers Science, London
Alcamo, J. and Swart, R. 1998. "Future Trends of Land-Use Emissions of Major Greenhouse Gases," submitted to Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change.
Alcamo, J., Onigkeit, J., and Kaspar, F., 1997. The Policy Analog for Computing Global and Regional Emissions of Sulfur Dioxide. Center for Environmental Systems Research, University of Kassel, Germany.
Alcamo, J., and Kreileman, E. 1996. "Emission Scenarios and Global Climate Protection." Global Environmental Change, 6(4):305-334.
Alcamo, J. et al. 1996. "Baseline Scenarios of Global Environmental Change." Global Environmental Change, 6(4):261-303.
Alcamo, J., A. Bouwman, J. Edmonds, A. Gruebler, T. Morita, A. Sugandhy. 1995. "An Evaluation of the IPCC IS92 Emission Scenarios", in IPCC "Climate Change 1994", 233-304, Cambridge University Press.
Alcamo, J. (ed.) 1994. IMAGE 2.0: Integrated Modeling of Global Climate Change. Dordrecht. Kluwer Academic Publishers.
Alexandratos, N. (ed.). 1997. World Agriculture Toward 2010, an FAO Study. J. Wiley and Sons, Chichester, UK and FAO, Rome.
Allardt, E., 1993: "Having, loving, being: an alternative to the Swedish model of welfare research," in Nussbaum and Sen (1993), pp. 88-94.
Amann, M., Cofala, J., Doerfner, P., Gyarfas, F., and Schoepp, W., 1995. Impacts of energy scenarios on regional acidification. Report, WEC Project 4 on Environment, Working Group C Local and Regional Energy Related Environmental Issues. World Energy Council, London.
Anastazi, C. and V.J. Simpson. 1993. "Future Methane Emissions from Animals." Journal of Geophysical Research, vol. 97, no.D7, pp. 7181-7186.
Anastazi, C., M. Dowding, and V.J. Simpson. 1992. "Future CH4 Emisions from Rice Production." Journal of Geophysical Research, vol. 97, no. D7, pp. 7521-7525.
Andersen, E.S., 1994: Evolutionary Economics: Post-Schumpeterian Contributions. Pinter, London.
Anderson, Dennis (1997) "Renewable Energy Technology Policy for Development." Annual Review of Energy and the Environment, 18:187-215.
Anderson, Dennis (1995). "Energy Efficiency and the Economists: the case for a policy based on economic principles." Annual Review of Energy and the Environment. 20: 495-511.
Anderson, Dennis (1993). "Energy Efficiency and the Economics of Pollution Abatement" for the Annual Review of Energy and the Environment, Vol. 18, pp 291-318.
Anderson, Dennis (1991) Energy and the Environment: an economic perspective on recent technological developments and policies. Edinburg: Wealth of Nations Foundation.
Anderson, Dennis and Will Cavendish (1992) "Efficiency and Substitution in Pollution Abatement: Three Case Studies". World Bank Discussion Paper no.186, 1992. Washington DC: World Bank.
Ang, B.W.: 1995, ‘Decomposition Methodology in Industrial Energy Demand Analysis’, Energy 20(11),1081-1096.
Ang, B.W. and Pandiyan, G.: 1997, ‘Decomposition of Energy-Induced CO2 Emissions in Manufacturing’ Energy Economics 19, 363-374.
APERC (Asia Pacific Energy Research Center). 1997. Future Energy Trends in the Asia Pacific Region, Senior Expert Meeting, Tokyo, Japan.
Appleby A.J. and Foulkes F.R. (1989). Fuel Cell Handbook. Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York.
Armstrong, D.M. 1993, "Transport Infrastructure, Urban Form and Mode Usage: An Econometric Analysis Based on Aggregate Comparative Data," in Regional Science Association Thirty Third European Congress, Moscow, 24-27 August 1993, Belfast, N. Ireland, Northern Ireland Economic Research Centre.
Arthur, W.B., 1994: Increasing Returns and Path Dependence in the Economy, Michigan University Press.
Arthur, W.B., 1988: "Competing technologies: an overview", in Dosi et al., 1988. pp. 590-607.
Astakhov and A Grubler, 1997, Coal Bed Methane in the Former Soviet Union, IIASA, Laxenburg, Austria
Austin, D (1995). "Road Pricing in Central London for Congestion and Emissions." Unpublished MSc Dissertation, University College London.
Ayres, R.U.: 1989, ‘Energy Efficiency in the U.S. Economy: A New Case for Conservation’, Pittsburgh, PA, Carnegie Mellon University.
Azar, C., 1996: Technological Change and the Long-Run Cost of Reducing
CO2 Emissions. Working Paper 96/84/EPS, INSEAD Centre for the Management
of Environmental Resources, Fontainebleau, France.
Banister, D.: 1992, ‘Energy Use, Transport and Settlement Patterns’, Sustainable Development and Urban Form Breheny, MJ (ed). London, Psion.
Barclay J.A. (1991) "Prospects for Magnetic Liquefaction of Hydrogen", Proceedings of the XVIIth International Congress of Refrigeration, August 10-17, 1991, Montreal, Canada.
Barclay J.A. (1995) "Cryofuels, now and in the Future". Cryogenic Engineering Conference/International Cryogenic Materials Conference, Columbus, Ohio, July 17-21, 1995.
Barclay J.A., deGrasse J., and Rogner,H-H. (1994) "The Case of Hydrogen: What Can We Learn From Natural Gas?" Paper presented at the 1994 Canadian Hydrogen Association Meeting, Victoria, BC, Canada.
Barnes, D.W. and J. A. Edmonds, 1990, "An Evaluation of the Relationship between the Production and Use of Energy and Atmospheric Methane Emissions," US Department of Energy, Washington DC, Report No. DOE/NBB-0088P
Bates, Robin.W. and Edwin. A. Moore (1992) "Commercial Energy Efficiency and the Environment", a background paper for the 1992 World Development Report of the World Bank.
Bender, W.H. 1994. "An End Use Analysis of Global Food Requirements." Food Policy, vol. 19, no. 4, pp. 381-395.
Benkovitz, C.M., Scholtz, M.T., Pacyna, J., Tarrason, L., Dignon, J., Voldner, E.C., Spiro, P.A., Logan, J.A., and Graedel, T.E., 1996. Global gridded inventories of anthropogenic emissions of sulfur and nitrogen. Journal of Geophysical Research 101(D22):29,239-29,253.
Bennathan, E., Fraser, J. and Thompson, L.S.: 1992, What Determines Demand for Freight Transport? Policy Research Working Paper WPS 998. Washington, DC, World Bank.
Berk, M. and M. Janssen (1997). The Interactive Scenario Scanner (ISS): a Tool to Support the Dialogue between Science and Policy on Scenrio Development Version 1.0. RIVM Report no. 481508005. Bilthoven
Bernardini, O. and Galli, R.: 1993, ‘Dematerialization: Long-Term Trends in the Intensity of Use of Materials and Energy’, Futures 25, 431-447.
Berrah, N.E. 1983. Energy and Development: the Tunnel Effect, Paris, Revue de l'Energie, n° 356.
BGR (1998) Reserven, Ressourcen und Verfugbarkeit von Energierohstoffen, Bundesanstalt fur Geowissenschaften und Rostoffe, Hannover, Germany.
Birdsall, N. (1994), "Another Look at Population and Global Warming" in Population, Environment and Development: Proceedings of the United Nations Expert Group Meeting on Population, Environment and Development, United Nations. Headquarters, 20-24 January, 1992, United Nations, New York, p. 39-54.
Birdsall, N. and Associates (1984). Population Change and Economic Development. eprinted from the 1984 World Development Report on Population.
Blanchet, D. (1991), Estimating the relationship between population growth and aggregate economic growth in developing countries: methodological problems, in UN, 1991, Consequences of Rapid Population Growth in Developing Countries, NY, Taylor & Francis.
Blix H., Rogner H-H. and Vladu F. (1998) Nuclear Energy, the Environment and the Role of Comparative Assessment, International Journal Sustainable Development, forthcoming.
Bongaarts, J. (1998), Why Population Growth Continues, submitted manuscript.
Bongaarts, J., O'Neill, B. C. and S. R. Gaffin (1997) Global Warming Policy: Population Left Out in the Cold: Commentary, Environment, v. 39(9) p. 40-41.
Bollen, J. C., A.M.C. Toet, H.J.M. de Vries and R.A. van den Wijngaart (1995). Modelling regional energy use for evaluating global climate scenarios. RIVM Report no. 481507010. Bilthoven
Bollen, J.C., A.M.C. Toet and H.J.M. de Vries (1996). "Evaluating cost-effective strategies for meeting regional CO2 targets." Global Environmental Change 6(4): 359-373
Bongaarts, J. (1994), Population Policy Options in the Developing World, Science, v. 263, p. 771-776.
Bongaarts, John (1994). "Population Options in the Developing World." Science 263 (February 11): 771-75.
Bongaarts, J., Maudlin, W. P and J. R. Phillips (1990), The Demographic Impact of Family Planning Programs, Studies in Family Planning, v. 21(29), p. 299-310.
Boone, Lawrence, Stephen Hall and David Kemball-Cooke (1992). "Endogenous Technical Progress in Fossil Fuel Demand", Centre for Economic Forecasting, London Business School. Noat di Lavoro 33.93, preented on the Workshop in "Modelling Environment Economy Linkage", Fondazione ENI Enrico Mattei, Milan, December 4th-5th, 1992.
Bos, E., Vu, M. T., Massiah, E. and R. Bulatao (1994), World Population Projections 1994-95 Edition, Johns Hopkins Press, Baltimore MD, 521 pp.
Bose T.P. and Barclay J.A. (1991) "Magnetic Refrigeration and Conventional Liquefaction Techniques''. Proceedings of the XVIIth International Congress of Refrigeration, August 10-17, 1991, Montreal, Canada.
Bourdaire J-M. and Pfaffenbarger J. (1997) "Nuclear Power and sustainable development", CORE ISSUES, No. 5, pp. 9 - 14, The Uranium Institute.
Bouwman, A.F. 1997. "Long-term scenarios of livestock-corp-land use interactions," FAO Land and Water Bulletin No. 5, FAO, Rome (in press).
Branson, W. (1989) Macroeconomic Theory and Policies, Harper and Row, London.
Braun H. (1990) "The Phoenix Project: An Energy Transition to Renewable Resources". Publishers Press, Salt Lake City, Utah.
British Petroleum: 1997, BP Statistical Review of World Energy 1997. London: British Petroleum (www.bp.com).
British Petroleum. 1996. "BP Statistical Review of World Energy 1996." BP, London, UK.
British Petroleum. "Solar, Map of Incoming Solar Radiation, "BP Solar, Sunbury on Thames, Middlesex, TW16 7XA, UK
Brown, L.R. and H. Kane. 1995. Full House: Reassessing the Earth's Population Carrying Capacity. Earthscan. London.
Brown, S. 1997. "Estimating Biomass and Biomass Change of Tropical Forests: A Primer." Forestry Paper, FAO, Rome.
Brown, S. and S. Gaston. 1995. "Use of Forest Inventories and Geographic Information Systems to Estimate Biomass Density of Tropical Forests: Application to Tropical Africa." Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, vol. 38, pp. 157-168.
Brown, S. L. Iverson, A. Prasad, and D. Lui. 1993. "Geographical Distribution of Carbon in Biomass and Soils and Tropical Asian Forests. Geocarto International, vol. 4, pp. 45-59.
Bunch, D.S., Bradley, M.A., Golob, T.F., Kitamura, R. and Occhiuzzo, G.P.: 1993, ‘Demand for Clean-Fuel Vehicles in California: a Discrete Choice Stated Preference Approach’, Transportation Research A 27A(3), 237-253.
Burgt van der M.J., Cantle J., and Boutkan V.K. (1992) "Carbon Dioxide
Disposal from Coal-Based IGCC's in Depleted Gas Fields". In Proceedings
of the First International Conference on Carbon Dioxide Removal, Blok K.,
Turkemberg W.C., and Hendriks C., eds, pp. 603-610. Pergamon Press, Oxford.
CDIAC (Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center), 1997. Marland, G., and Boden, T., National Annual CO2 Emission Estimates, Revision February 1997. CDIAC, Oak Ridge, TN, USA.
CIRED (Centre International de Recherche sur l'Environnement et le Developpement), IVM, IIASA, SMASH, RIIA, 1997. Integrated Assessment Modelling of Global Environmental Policies and Decision Patterns. Interim Report ENV4-CT96-0197, CIRED, Paris.
Caldwell J.H.J (1994) Photovoltaic Technology and Markets, Contemporary Economic Policy, Vol. 12, No. 2, pp. 97-111.
Campbell C.J. (1997) "Better Understanding Urged for Rapidly Depleting Reserves," Oil and Gas Journal, pp. 51-54, 7 April 1997.
Cannon, J.S. (1995), Harnessing Hydrogen.
Cavallo A. "High Capacity Factor Wind Energy Systems," Journal of Solar Engineering, 117, p 137-143, 1995.
Cavallo, Alfred J., Susan M. Hock and Don R. Smith (1993). "Wind Energy: Technology and Economics." In Johansson et. al. (op. cit.), pp 593-651.
Christiansson L (1995) Diffusion and Learning Curves of Renewable Energy Technologies, Working Paper WP-95-126.International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Laxenburg, Austria.
Chin, T.H. and Ang, B.W.: 1994, ‘Energy, Environment and Transport Policy in Singapore’, Sectoral Meeting on Energy, Environment and Urban Transport, Hong Kong, UNESCAP.
Churchill, Anthony (1993). "Energy Demand and Supply in the Developing World, 1990-2020: three decades of explosive growth." Proc. Annu. World Bank Conf. Dev. Econ. Pp. 441-58. Washington DC: World Bank.
CIAB (IEA Coal Industry Advisory Board), 1992, Global Methane Emissions from the Coal Industry, Coal Industry Advisory Board, October 1992
CIE. 1995. World Energy, Energy Information Centre, Warsaw, Poland, (in Polish)
Cincotta, R. P. and R. Engelman (1997) Economics and Rapid Change: The Influence of Population Growth, Population Action International, Washington, D.C.
Cohen J. (1997) Summary of Large HAWTs in Windfarms Technology Characterisation, Princetown Economic Research Inc (Rockville, Md, USA), Report for NREL under Subcontract No AAT-6-15292-01.
Colombo, Umberto and U. Farinelli (1992). "Progress in Fusion Energy." Annual Review of Energy and the Environment. 17:123-159.
Cole, V., et al.: 1996, ‘Agricultural Options for Mitigation of Greenhouse Gas Emissions’, Climate Change 1995: Impacts, Adaptations and Mitigation of Climate Change: Scientific-Technical Analyses, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.
Commission of the European Communities (1994) The European Renewable Energy Study: Prospects for Renewable Energy in the European Community and Eastern Europe up to 2010, Alterer Programme ECSS-EEC-EAEX, CEC Brussels.
Complainville, C., and Martins, J.O., 1994. NOx and SO2 emissions and carbon abatement. Economic Department Working Paper No. 151, OECD, Paris.
Craig K.R. and Manne M.K. (1996) Cost and Performance Analysis of Biomass Based Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (BIGCC) Power Systems, Report No NREL/TP-430-21657, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, October 1996
Crosette, B. (1997), How to Fix a Crowded World: Add More People, The New York Times, Nov. 2, 1997.
Crowther, J. G. (1956). Nuclear Energy in Industry. London: George Newnes Limited.
Crutzen, P.J. and C. Bhuhl, 1993, A Model Study of Atmospheric Temperatures and the Concentrations of Ozone, Hydroxyl and some other Photochemically Active Gases during the Glacial, the Pre-industrial Holocene and the Present, Geophys Res Lett, 20, 1047-1050
Crutzen, P.J., and Graedel, T.E. 1986. The role of atmospheric chemistry
in environment-development interactions. In: W.C. Clark and T. Munn (eds.)
Sustainable Development of the Biosphere. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge,
Dahl, C. and Sterner, T.: 1991, ‘A Survey of Econometric Gasoline Demand Elasticities,’ International Journal of Energy Systems, 11(2).
Dargay, Joyce and Dermot Gately (1995) "The Response of World Energy and Oil Demand to Income Growth and Changes in Oil Prices." Annual Review of Energy and the Environment, 20:145-78.
Darmstadter, J., Dunkerley, J., Alterman, J. 1977. How Industrial Societies Use Energy, John Hopkins University Press.
David, P.A., 1985: "Clio and the Economics of QWERTY" in American Economic Review 75(2)332-7.
Davis, S.C. and Strang, S.G.: 1993, Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 13. Oak Ridge, Tennessee, Oak Ridge National Laboratory.
DeLuchi, M.A., 1992: Hydrogen Fuel-Cell Vehicle,. Research Report UCD-ITS-RR-92-14, Institute of Transportation Studies, University of California at Davis, Davis, CA.
Dietz, T. and P.C. Stern, 1993: Individual Preferences, Contingent Valuation, and the Legitimation of Social Choice. National Research Council, Washington, DC.
Dignon, J., and Hameed, S., 1989. Global emissions of nitrogen and sulfur oxides from 1860 to 1980. Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association 39(2):180-186.
Dosi, G., K. Pavitt and L. Soete, 1990: The Economics of Technical change and International Trade. Harvester Wheatsheaf, London.
Dosi, G., C. Freeman, R. Nelson, G. Silverberg and L. Soete (eds), 1988: Technical Change and Economic Theory. Pinter, London and New York.
Dosi, G., 1988: Chapter 10 "The Nature of the Innovation Process" in Dosi et al., 1988. pp. 221-238.
Dowlatabadi, H. 1996. "Adaptive Strategies for Climate Change Mitigation:Implication for Policy Design and Timing." Draft Paper.
Dowlatabadi, H. et al. 1995. "Key Uncertainties in Climate Change Policy: Results form ICAM-2." Global Warming Conference, San Francisco.
DRI/McGraw-Hill: 1997, ‘Transportation Sector Subsidies: U.S. Case Study’,
Implications of Energy and Transport Subsidies. Volume 3, Supports to the
Road Transport Sector. Paris: OECD (OCDE/GD(97)156).
EC (European Commission), 1996. European Energy to 2020: A Scenario Analysis. Energy in Europe, Special Issue (Spring) 1996.
ECE (Economic Commission for Europe), 1997. Anthropogenic Emissions of Sulfur 1980 to 2010 in the ECE Region. EB.AIR/GE.1/1997/3 and Addendum 1. ECE, Geneva, Switzerland.
EPA (US Environmental Protection Agency), 1995. National Air Pollutant Emission Trends 1900-1004. EPA-454/R-95-1, EPA, Washington D.C.
Easterlin, R. A (1977?) The Economics and Sociology of Fertility: A Synthesis, J. ?, p. 57-113?
Eberstadt, N. (1997) World Population Implosion ?, The Public Interest, n. 129, p. 3-22.
ECN. 1997. Energy Policy Guidelines in Poland, ECN Policy Studies, Netherland .
Edmonds, J. and J.F. Clarke (1998). "A Global Energy Technology Strategy to Address Climate Change." A briefing note by the Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratories. Washington DC 20024.
Elliott, Phillip and Roger Booth (1993) "Brazilian Biomass Power Generation Project." Special Project Brief. London: Shell International Petroleum Company.
Ellis, J. and Tréanton, K.: 1998, ‘Recent Trends in Energy-Related CO2 Emissions’, Energy Policy 26(3), 159-166.
Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) (1997) Solid Oxide Fuel Cells http://www.epri.com/srd/sofc/
Engelman, R. (1994), Stabilizing the Atmosphere: Population, Consumption and Greenhouse Gases, Population Action International, Washington, D.C.
Etheridge, D.M., L. P. Steele, R. J. Francy and R. L. Langenfelds, 1998, Atmospheric Methane between 1000 AD and Present: Evidence of Atmospheric Emissions and Climatic Variability, in press, JGR Atmospheres, in press
European and British Wind Energy Associations (1997) UK: Prices Fall by 30%, Wind Directions, April 1997
European Commission, Directorate General for Energy(DG XVII). 1996. "European Energy to 2020:A Scenario Approach." Energy In Europe Special Issue Spring 1996.
Eurostat Report (1990): Operation of Nuclear Power Stations.
Evans, M.: 1996, ‘Modelling Steel Demand in the UK’, Ironmaking and
Faaij, A.P.C., Blok, K. and Worrell, E.: 1995, ‘World-wide Comparison of Efficiency and Carbon Dioxide Emissions of Public Electricity Generation’, Utrecht, The Netherlands, Department of Science, Technology & Society, Utrecht University.
Faiz, A.: 1993, ‘Automotive Emissions in Developing Countries — Relative Implications for Global Warming, Acidification and Urban Air Quality’, Transportation Research-A, 27A(3), 167-186.
Federal Energy Technology Center, 1997. Fuel Cell Overview, USDOE/EIA.
Feinstein Charles D., Ren Orans and Stephen W. Chapel (1997). "The Distributed Utility: A New Electric Utility Planning and Pricing Paradigm." Annual Review of Energy. 22:155-85.
Fernside, P.M. 1995 Hydroelectric Dams in the Brazilian Amazon as Sources of Greenhouse Gases, Environmental Conservation Vol 22 No1, Spring 1995
Fiddaman, T. (1997). Feedback Complexity in Integrated Climate-Economy Models. MIT Sloan School of Management. Ph. D. Thesis
Fischer, G. 1996. "Simulating the Conventional Development Paradigm with IIASA's BLS." Paper for the Global Modeling Forum, Yokyo.
Fischer , G. and Rosenzweig, C., 1996. The impacts of climate change, CO2 and SO2 on agricultural supply and trade: an integrated assessment. WP-96-05, IIASA, Laxenburg, Austria.
Foell et al., 1995. Rains Asia: An assessment model for air pollution in Asia. Report on the World Bank sponsored project ``Acid Rain and Emission Reductions in Asia''. World Bank,Washington D.C.
Fowkes, A.S., Nash, C.A., Toner, J.P., and Tweddle, G.: 1993a, Disaggregated Approaches to Freight Analysis: A Feasibility Study, Working Paper 399, UK, Institute of Transportation Studies, University of Leeds.
Freeman, C., 1990: ‘Schumpeter’s business cycles revisited’ in A. Heertje and M. Perlman (eds.) Evolving technology and Market Structure — Studies in Schumpeterian Economics, Ann Arbor, University of Michigan. pp. 17-38.
Freeman, C. and C. Perez:, 1988: Structural crises of adjustment: business cycles and investment behaviour, in Dosi et al., 1988. pp. 38-66.
Freeman, C., 1987: Technology Policy and Economic Performance.
Gaffin, S. R. and B. C. O'Neill (1997), Population and Global Warming With and Without CO2 Targets, Population and Environment, v. 18(4), p. 389-413.
Gagnon, L.and Joop F van de Vate, 1997, Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Hydropower, Energy Policy Vol 25 No 1 pp 7-13
Gallopin, G., et al.:1997, Branch Points: Global Scenarios and Human Choice
Gallopin, G. and M. Winograd. 1997. "Land Use Models for Latin America and the Caribbean under Conventional Development Scenario." Paper for the Global Modeling Forum, Tokyo.
Gaston, G., S. Brown, Mo. Lorenzini, and K. Sing. (in press). "State and Change in Carbon Pools in Forests of Tropical Africa." Global Change Biology.
Geurts, B., and H. Timmer (1993). World Scan - A Long-Term WORLD model for SCenario ANalysis. Central Planning Bureau (CPB)
Giovannini, B. and A. Baranzini (eds.), 1997: Energy Modelling: Beyond Economics and Technology. International Academy of the Environment, Geneva, and the Centre for Energy Studies of the University of Geneva.
Goldemberg, J., 1991. "Leap-frogging": A new energy policy for developing countries. WEC Journal December:27-30.
Golove, W. and Schipper, L.: 1997, ‘Restraining Carbon Emissions: Measuring Energy Use and Efficiency in the USA’ Energy Policy 25(7-9), 803-812.
Goodwin, P.B.: 1992, ‘A Review of New Demand Elasticities with Special Reference to Short and Long Run Effects of Price Changes’, Journal of Transport Economics and Policy, 26(2), 155-170.
Greene, D.L.: 1992, ‘Vehicle Use and Fuel Economy: How Big is the "Rebound" Effect?’ The Energy Journal 13(1), 117-143.
Greene, D.L. and Duleep, K.G.: 1993, ‘Costs and Benefits of Automotive Fuel Economy Improvement: A Partial Analysis’, Transportation. Research-A, 27A (3), 217-235.
Greening, L.A. and Jeng, H.T.: 1994, ‘Life-Cycle Analysis of Gasoline Expenditure Patterns’. Energy Economics 16(3), 217-228.
Greening, L.A., Jeng, H.T., Formby, J. and Cheng, D.C.: 1994, ‘Use of Region, Life-Cycle and Role Variables in the Short-Run Estimation of the Demand for Gasoline and Miles Travelled’, Applied Economics 27(7), 643-655.
Gregory, Ken (1998). "Energy Resources and Supply Technologies." Draft Background Paper for the IPCC Working Group Special Report on Emissions Scenarios. Washington DC, April 29-30.
Grossman, G. M. and E. Helpman, 1993: Endogenous Innovation in the Theory of Growth. National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER), Working Paper no. 4527. NBER, Cambridge, MA.
Grubb, M., 1996: ‘Technologies, Energy Systems, and the Timing of CO2 Emissions Abatement: An Overview of Economic Issues’. In Climate Change: Integrating Science, Economics, and Policy [N. Nakicenovic, W. D. Nordhaus, R. Richels and F.L. Tol (eds.)]. International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Laxenberg, Austria. pp. 249-270.
Grubb, Michael, T. Chapuis and M. Duong (1995). "The Economics of Changing Course: Implications of Adaptability and Inertia for Optimal Climate Policy." Energy Policy 23(4/5): 417-32
Grubb, Michael, Jae Edmonds, Patrick ten Brink and Michael Morrison (1993). "The Costs of Limiting Fossil-Fuel Emissions: A Survey and Analysis." Annual Review of Energy and the Environment. 18:397-478.
Grubb M.J. and Meyer N.I. (1993) "Wind Energy: Resources, Systems and Regional Strategies," in Renewable Energy: Sources for Fuels and Electricity (Eds: T B Johansson, H Kelly, A K N Reddy, R H Williams), Island Press, Washington DC.
Gruebler, A., and Nakicenovic, N., 1996. Decarbonizing the Global Energy System." Technological Forecasting & Social Change 53(1):91-110.
Grübler, A., Messner, S., Schrattenholzer, L. and Schäfer, A.: 1993, ‘Emission Reduction at the Global Level’, Energy 18(5), 539-581.
Grübler, A. and N. Nakicenovic, 1991: Evolution of Transport Systems: Past and Future. RR-91-8. International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Laxenburg, Austria.
Grubler A., Nakicenovic N.: 1991, Long Waves, Technology Diffusion,
and Substitution, Review XIV(2):Spring 1991, Research Foundation of
State University of New York, Stanford, USA, pp.313-342.
Häfele, W., J. Anderer A. McDonald and N. Nakicenovic, 1982: Energy in a Finite World: Paths to a Sustainable Future. Ballinger, Cambridge, MA.
Hall D.O. (1992), Analyse the Needs for Fuelwood Plantations, Shell International Petroleum Company and World Wide Fund for Nature, (draft in press 1992)
Hall, D. O., Frank Rosillo-Calle, Robert H. Williams and Jeremy Woods (1993). "Biomass for Energy: Supply Prospects." In Johansson et. al. (op. cit.), pp 593-651.
Hall, D. O. and R.P. Overend, editors ( 1987): Biomass: Regenerable Energy. New York: John Wiley and Sons.
Hammer, J. S. (1985) Population Growth and Savings in Developing Countries, World Bank Staff Working Paper Number 687, Population and Development Series, N. 12, World Bank, Washington, D.C.
Hamso, Bjorn, Afsaneh Mashayekhi and Hossein Razavi (1994) "International Gas Trade: Potential Major Projects." Annual Review of Energy and the Environment. 19:37-73.
Han, X. and Chatterjee, L.: 1997, ‘Impacts of Growth and Structural Change on CO2 Emissions of Developing Countries’, World Development 5(2), 395-407.
Hansen, J. Makiko Sato, Jay Glascoe and Reto Ruedy, 1998, A Common-sense Climate Index: Is Climate Changing Noticeably? Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, Vol 95, pp 4113-4120, April 1998
Harberger, A.C. (1984) World Economic Growth: Case Studies of Developed and Developing Nations. San Francisco: ICS Press.
Hart, David (1997) "Hydrogen Power: The commercial future of ‘the ultimate fuel’." London: Financial Times Energy Publishing.
Hatfield C.B. (1997) Oil Back on the Global Agenda, Nature, Vol. 387, p.121.
Haub, C. (1997), New UN Projections Depict a Variety of Demographic Futures, Population Today: News Numbers and Analysis, v. 25(4), p. 1-3.
Hausberger, S.: 1996, Personal communication. Graz, Austria, Technical University.
Heiner, R. A., 1988: Chapter 7 "Imperfect decisions and routinized production: implications for evolutionary modeling and inertial technical change" in Dosi et al., 1988. pp. 147-169.
Hensher, D.A., Milthorpe, F.W., and Smith, N.C.: 1990, ‘The Demand for Vehicle Use in the Urban Household Sector: Theory and Empirical Evidence’, Journal of Transport Economics and Policy, 24(2),119-137.
Higgins, M. and J. G. Williamson (1997) Age Structure Dynamics in Asia and Dependence on Foreign Capitol, Population and Development Review, v. 23(2), p. 261-293.
Hoffmann P. (1981) "The Forever Fuel: The Story of Hydrogen". Westview Press, Boulder, Colorado.
Hollander J.M. (1997) China and the New Asian Electricity Markets, EPRI Journal, Vol 22, No 5, pp. 26 -30.
Holt T. and Lindberg E. (1992) "Thermal Power - Without Greenhouse Gases and With Improved Oil Recovery'". In Proceedings of the First International Conference on Carbon Dioxide Removal, Blok K., Turkemberg W.C., and Hendriks C., eds, pp. 595-602. Pergamon Press, Oxford.
Houghton, R. 1991. "Tropical Deforestation and Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide." Climatic Change, vol. 19, pp. 99-118.
Hourcade, J.C., Richels, R., Robinson, J. et al. 1996. Estimating the Cost of Mitigating Greenhouse Gases Economic and Social Dimensions of Climate Change, IPCC Second Assessment Report, vol.3, p.263-296.
Howarth, R.B. and Schipper, L.: 1991, ‘Manufacturing Energy Use in Eight OECD Countries: Trends through 1988’, Berkeley, CA, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory.
Hulme, M., 1997. Climate Research Unit, University of East Anglia, UK, comment to the first draft of the sulfur discussion paper.
Humphrey, W.S. and J. Stanislaw, 1979: ‘Economic growth and energy consumption in the UK, 1700-1975’, in Energy Policy, vol. 7 no. 1 pp. 29-42.
Huntington S. 1997. The Clash of Civilizations and
the Remaking of World Order, Polish translation by Warszawskie Wydawnictwo
Literackie MUZA SA" – Warszawa.
INSAG (1988) "Basic Safety Principles for Nuclear Power" IAEA-STI/PUP/802, Vienna, Austria.
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (1998). "Draft Special Reports on Emissions Scenarios. Lead authors meeting." Washington DC, April 29-30, 1998.
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change IPCC (1996a). Climate Change 1995, Impacts, Adaptations and Mitigation of Climate Change: Scientific-Technical Analysis. R.T. Watson, M.C. Zinyowera and R.H. Moss (eds). Contribution of Working Group II to the Second Assessment Report, Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Cambridge University Press, pp. 585-647.
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change: 1996b, Technologies, Policies and Measures for Mitigating Climate Change, Geneva, IPCC.
IPCC, WGIII. 1996. Climate Change 1995a: Economic and Social Dimensions of Climate Change (J. Bruce et al., eds.). Cambridge University Press.
IPCC ,WGI. 1996. Climate Change 1995b: The Science of Climate Change (J.T. Houghton et al., eds). Cambridge University Press.
IPCC. 1995c. "Radiative Forcing of Climate Change." In: J.T. Houghton et al. (eds), Climate Change 1994. Cambridge University Press, pp. 1-231.
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. 1995d. Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories, Reference Manual. UNEP/WMO/OECD/IEA.
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. 1992, Climate Change 1992, The Supplementary Report to the IPCC Scientific Assessment, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.
International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) (1998a) "Nuclear Power Reactors in the World", IAEA-Reference Data Series No.2, April 1998 Edition, International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, Austria.
International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) (1998b) "World Energy Prospects to 2020" Paper prepared by the International Energy Agency for the G8 Ministers' Meeting, Moscow March 31, 1998.
International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), (1997a). DECADES Tools, User's Manual for Version 1.0, DECADES Project Documentation No.2,Vienna, Austria.
International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) (1997b) "Sustainable Development and Nuclear Power", Brochure prepared by the International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, Austria.
International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) (1997c) "Energy Environment Update" No. 6, Autumn 1997, International Energy Agency, Paris, France.
International Civil Aviation Organization: 1995a, Outlook for Air Transport to the Year 2003, Circular 252-AT/103, Montreal, ICAO.
International Civil Aviation Organization: 1995b, Civil Aviation Statistics of the World, 1994, Doc 9180/20, Montreal, ICAO.
International Energy Agency: 1997a, Energy Balances of OECD Countries, 1960-1995, Paris, IEA/OECD.
International Energy Agency: 1997b, Energy Balances of Non-OECD Countries, 1960-1995, Paris, IEA/OECD.
International Energy Agency: 1997c, CO2 Emissions from Fuel Combustion: Annex II Countries 1960-1995; Non-Annex II Countries 1971-1995, Paris, IEA/OECD.
International Energy Agency: 1997d, Indicators of Energy Use and Efficiency: Understanding the Link Between Energy and Human Activity, Paris, IEA/OECD.
International Energy Agency: 1997e, Indicators of Energy Use and Efficiency, OECD, Paris.
IEA Greenhouse Gas R&D Programme, 1997f, "Methane Emissions from the Oil and Gas Industry, IEA Greenhouse Gas R&D Programme," Stoke Orchard, Cheltenham, UK, to be published.
IEA Greenhouse Gas R&D Programme, 1996a, "Methane Emissions from Coal Mining, IEA Greenhouse Gas R&D Programme," Stoke Orchard, Cheltenham, UK, to be published
IEA Greenhouse Gas R&D Programme, 1996b, "Methane Emissions from Land Disposal of Solid Waste, IEA Greenhouse Gas R&D Programme," Stoke Orchard, Cheltenham, UK, to be published.
International Energy Agency. 1996c, World Energy Outlook, OECD/IEA, Paris.
International Energy Agency. 1996d. Global Offshore Oil Prospects to 2000, IEA, Paris.
International Energy Agency. 1995. World Energy Outlook, Paris, IEA/OECD.
International Energy Agency. 1994a. Energy Statistics and Balances: OECD/OCDE (1960-1992); Non-OECD/Non
Membres (1971-1992) – Diskette Service Documentation. Paris: IEA/OECD.
International Energy Agency. 1994b. World Energy Outlook, 1994 Edition, Paris, OECD.
International Energy Agency. 1994c. Energy Prices and Taxes, First Quarter, 1994. Paris, OECD.
International Energy Agency. 1993a. Cars and Climate Change, Paris, OECD.
International Energy Agency: 1993b, Energy Statistic and Balances for OECD and non-OECD countries 1971-1991, OECD, Paris, France
International Energy Agency (1991), Energy Efficiency and the Environment.
International Food Policy Research Institute.1995. "A 2020 Vision for food, Agriculture and the Environment." Washington, D.C.
International Gas Union, 1997, Gas and the Environment - Methane Emissions, Report of IGU Task Force I, 20th World Gas Conference Proceedings, Copenhagen, June 1977.
International Gas Union, World Gas Prospects, Strategies and Economics, 20th World Gas Conference Proceedings, Copenhagen, June 1997
International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), and World Energy Council (WEC). 1995. "Global Energy Perspectives to 2050 and Beyond." IIASA, Laxenburg, Austria.
Ishitashi H. and Johansson T.B. (1996) Energy Supply Mitigation Options, in Climate Change 1995 - Impacts, Adaptation and Mitigation of Climate Change: Scientific Analysis, (Eds: R T Watson, M C Zinyowera and R H Moss), Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Cambridge University Press, UK.
Ivanhoe L.F. and Leckie G.G (1993) Global Oil, Gas Fields, Sizes Tallied, Analyzed, Oil and Gas Journal, pp. 87-91, 15 February 1993.
International Iron and Steel Institute: 1996, Steel
Statistical Yearbook 1995, Brussels, Belgium, IISI.
Jacobs, M.: 1994, ‘The Limits to Neoclassicism: Towards an Institutional Environmental Economics’, Social Theory and the Global Environment, eds. M. Redclift and T. Benton, London, Routledge.
Jänicke, M., Binder, M. and Mönch, H.: 1997, ‘’Dirty Industries’: Patterns of Change in Industrial Countries’ Environmental Resource Economics 9, 467-491.
Jansson, J.O.: 1989, ‘Car Demand Modelling and Forecasting’, Journal of Transport Economics and Policy 23(2), 125-140.
Jefferson, M. 1997a. Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Fossil Fuel Use : Recent Performance and Future Prospects, background paper for the Session on Differentiation versus Common Targets and Timetables, AREA Canadian National Climate Change Conference, Toronto.
Jefferson, M. 1997b. Potential Climate Change : Carbon Dioxide Emissions 1990-1996, Journal of the World Energy Council.
Jennings, John. (1995). Address to the Sixteenth World Energy Council Congress, Tokyo, Japan, 9 October 1995. Shell International plc. London.
Jepma, C. 1995. Tropical Deforestation: A Socio-Economic Approach. Earthscan Publications, Ltd., London.
Jochem, E.: 1989, ‘Rationelle Energienutzung in den Industrieländern – Praxis und Zukünftige Chancen’, 53. Physikertagung der Deutschen Physickalischen Gesellschaft, Bonn.
Johansson T.B, Kelly H., Reddy A.K.N. and Williams R.H. (1993) "Renewable Fuels and Electricity for a Growing World Economy: Defining and Achieving the Potential," In Renewable Energy: Sources for Fuels and Electricity (Eds: Johansson T.B., Kelly H., Reddy A.K.N. and Williams R.H.) Island Press, Washington DC.
Jones, C.T.: 1993, "Another Look at U.S. Passenger Vehicle Use and the "Rebound" Effect from Improved Fuel Efficiency," The Energy Journal 14(4), 99-143.
Juhn, P.E, Kupitz,J. and Cleveland J. (1997) "Advanced Nuclear Power Plants: Highlights of Global Development", IAEA Bulletin, Vol. 39, No. 2, pp. 21 - 29.
Justi, Eduard W. (Editor) (1987). A Solar-Hydrogen
Energy System, New York and London: Plenum Press.
Kanoh T., Toward Dematerialization and Decarbonization, Science and Sustainability, Selected Papers on IIASA’s 20th anniversary, IIASA, Laxenburg, Austria, 1992
Kato, N., 1996. Analysis of structure of energy consumption and dynamics of emission of atmospheric species related to the global environmental change (SOx, NOx, and CO2) in Asia. Atmospheric Environment 30(5):757-785.
Kaya, Y. 1989. "Impact of Carbon Dioxide Emissions on GNP Growth: Interpretation of Proposed Scenarios," Response Strategies Working Group, IPCC.
Kelly, A. (1988) Economic Consequences of Population Change in the Third World, J. of Economic Literature, v. 26(4), p. 685-728.
Kendall, H.W. and D. Pimentel. 1994. "Constraints on the Expansion of the Global Food Supply," Ambio, vol. 23, no. 3, pp. 198-205.
Klein, G., J. van Minnen, G. Kreileman, M. Vloedbeld, and R. Leemans. 1994. "Simulating the Carbon flux between the Tresstrial Environmental and the Atmosphere." Water Air Soil Pollution. 76(1/2): 199-230.
Klein Goldewijk, K., and K. Battjes (1995). The IMAGE 2 Hundred Year (1890-1990) Data Base of the Global Environment (HYDE). RIVM Report No. 481507008. Bilthoven
Kroeze, C. (1995). Fluorocarbons and SF6 - Global emission inventory and options for control. RIVM Report no. 773001007. Bilthoven
Knapp, T. and Mookerjee, R. 1996. "Population Growth and Global CO2 Emissions." Energy Policy, 24(1):31-37.
Kolsrud, G. and Torrey, B. B. (1992), The Importance of Population Growth in Future Commercial Energy Consumption, in (J. C. White, ed.) Global Climate Change: Linking Energy, Environment, Economy and Equity, New York, Plenum Press, 242 pp.
Koopman, G.J.: 1995, ‘Policies to Reduce CO2 Emissions from Cars in Europe’, Journal of Transport Economics and Policy, January, 53-70.
Korean Energy Economics Institute (Tae-Yong Yung), Kyinggi-Do, Korea. Personal communication.
Krackeler, T., Schipper, L., and Sezgen, O.: 1998, The Dynamics of Service Sector Carbon Dioxide Emissions and the Critical Role of Electricity Use: A Comparative Analysis of 13 OECD Countries from 1973-1995, Berkeley, CA, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, draft, (LBNL-41882).
Kram, T., 1993: National Energy Options for Reducing CO2 Emissions, Report of the Energy technology Systems Analysis Programme (ETSAP), Annex IV (1990-1993), ECN-C-93-101, Netherlands Energy Research Foundation, Petten, Netherlands.
Kreileman, G. J. and A.F. Bouwman. 1994. "Computing Land Use Emissions of Greenhouse Gases. Water Air Soil Pollution 76(1/2): 231-258.
Kroeze, C. 1997. "Nitrous Oxide Emissions: the New IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories and the Global N2O Budget." Paper presented at the Dutch Workshop on Comparison of Bottom-up and Top-Down Inventories, Bilthoven, the Netherlands..
Kroeze, 1993. "Global Warming and Nitrous Oxide." Dissertation, University of Amsterdam.
Kuznets, Simon S. 1971. Economic Growth of Nations: Total Output and Production Structure, Harvard University Press.
Kuznets, Simon (1966). Modern Economic Growth: Rate,
Structure and Spread. New Haven: Yale University Press.
Laherrere J. (1994) Published Figures and Political Reserves, World Oil, January 1994, p. 33.
Lamarre, L. (1994) "Electricity From Whole Trees". EPRI Journal, Jan/Feb.1994, Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, California.
Lane, D. and R. Maxfield, 1995: Foresight, Complexity and Strategy. Santa Fe Institute,ew Mexico.
Larson, Eric D (1993) "Technology for Electricity and Fuels from Biomass." Annual Review of Energy and the Environment, 18: 567-630.
La Rovere, E.L. 1996. "The Challenge of Limiting the Risk of Global Climate Change in Developing Countries : the Case of Brazilian Ethanol Programme," Proceedings of the International Conference Environment in the 21st century - Environment, long-term Governance and Democracy, Fontevraud, France.
La Rovere, E.L. 1996. "Carbon Sinks and Adjustment Policies in Developing Countries," Proceedings of the International Symposium on the Prospects for Integrated Environmental Assessment : Lessons learnt from the case of Climate Change, Toulouse, France.
Lashof, D.A. and D.A. Tirpak. 1990. "Policy Options for Stabilizing Global Climate." 21P-2003 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C.
Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory: 1998a, OECD Database, Berkeley, CA, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, International Energy Studies.
Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory: 1998b, LDC Database, Berkeley, CA, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, International Energy Studies.
Leach, G. 1995. Global Land and Food in the 21st Century: Trends and Issues for Sustainability. PoleStar series report no. 5, Stockholm Environment Institute.
Leemans R. (1996) Mitigation: Cross Sectorial and other Issues, in Climate Change 1995 - Impacts, Adaptation and Mitigation of Climate Change: Scientific Analysis, (Eds: Watson R.T, Zinyowera M.C. and Moss R.H.), Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Cambridge University Press, UK.
Leemans, R., A. van Amstel, C. Battjes, E. Kreileman, and S. Toet. 1996. "The Land Cover and Carbon Cycle Consequences of Large-Scale Utilization of Biomass as an Energy Source." Global Environmental Change, vol. 6, no.4, pp. 335-357.
Leggett J., Pepper J.W. and Swart J.R. (1992) Emissions Scenarios for the IPCC: an Update, in Climate Change 1992 - The Supplementary Report to The IPCC Scientific Assessment, Cambridge University Press, UK.
Li, J.-W., Shrestha, R.M. and Foel, W.K.: 1990, ‘Structural Change and Energy Use, The Case of the Manufacturing Industry in Taiwan’ Energy Economics 12, 109-115.
Lobachyov K. and Richter H.J. (1997) An Advanced Integrated Biomass Gasification and Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell Power System, Paper Presented at Flowers '97: Florence World Energy Research Symposium, Florence, Italy, 30 July-1 August 1997.
Lovins A.B. (1996a) "Hypercars And Negatrips: The Next Transportation Revolution" Proceedings of the Conference "Towards Sustainable Transportation" organized by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), Vancouver, B.C., March 24-27, 1996.
Lovins A.B. (1996b) "Negawatts - Twelve transitions, eight improvements and one distraction." Energy Policy Vol. 24, No. 4, pp. 331-343.
Lovins, A.B., J.W. Barnett and L.H. Lovins, 1993: Supercars, The Coming Light-Vehicle Revolution. Rocky Mountain Institute, Snowmass, CO.
Lovins, A.B. and Lovins, L.H.: 1991, "Least-Cost Climatic
Stabilization," Annual Review of Energy 16, 433-531.
Lurgi GmbH (1989) "Gasification of Lignite and Wood in the Lurgi Circulating Fluidized- Bed Gasifier". Report prepared for the Electric Power Research Institute, EPRI GS-6436.
Lutz, W., Sanderson, W. and S. Scherbov (1997) "Doubling of World Population Unlikely," Nature, v. 387, p. 803-805.
Lutz, W., Goldstein, J. R. and C. Prinz (1996a), "Alternative Approaches to Population Projections," in Lutz, W. (ed.), The Future Population of the World: What Can We Assume Today? Revised 1996 Edition, Earthscan Publications Ltd, London, p. 15-44.
Lutz, W., Sanderson, W., Scherbov, S. and A. Goujon (1996b), World Population Scenarios in the 21st Century, in Lutz, W. (ed.), The Future Population of the World: What Can We Assume Today ? Revised 1996 Edition, Earthscan Publications Ltd, London, p. 361-396.
Lutz, W. (1994), Dilemmas of a Demographer Delegate, or the Death of the Wrong "Cairo Target," Population Network Newsletter, n. 26, p. 6-8.
Lutz, W. (1993), Population and environment - what do
we need more urgently: better data, better models, or better questions
? in B. Zaba and J. Clarke (eds), Environment and Population Change,
IUSSP, Derouaux Ordina Editions, Liege, Belgium, 491 pp.
MacKellar, L. , Lutz, W., Munn, R. E., Wexler, L., O'Neill, B. C., McMichael, A., and A. Suhrkre (1998) Population and Global Warming, Book Manuscript, Laxenburg, Austria, IIASA.
MacKellar, L. W. , Lutz, W., Prinz, C. and A. Goujon (1995) Population, households and CO2 emissions, Population and Development Review, v. 21(4), p. 849-865.
MacKenzie, J.J., 1994: The Keys to the Car, World Resources Institute, Washington, DC.
Maddison, A., 1995: Monitoring the World Economy 1820-1992, Development Centre Studies, OECD, Paris.
Malenbaum, W.: 1975, World Demand for Raw Materials in 1985 and 2000, New York, McGraw-Hill.
Mannaerts, H.: 1997, STREAM, Economic Activity and Physical Flows in an Open Economy, The Hague, The Netherlands Central Planning Bureau.
Manne, A. et al. 1996. "Hedging Strategies for Global Carbon Dioxide Abatements." 95 EMF 14 Subgroup Poll Studies.
Manne, A. et al. 1995. "A Summary of Poll Results, EMF 14 Subgroup-Analysis for Decisions under Uncertainty." EMF Summer Workshop, Snowmass, USA.
Manne, A., and Richels, R. 1996. "The Greenhous Debate-Economic Efficiency, Burden Sharing and Hedging Strategies." Draft Paper.
Manne, A., and Richels, R. 1996. "Viewpoint- The Berlin Mandate:The Cost of Meeting Post-200 Targets and Timetables." Energy Policy, 24(3):205-210.
Manne, A. et al. 1995. 'MERGE A Model for Evaluating Regional and Global Effects of GHG Reduction Policy." Energy Policy, 23(1):17-34.
Manne, A., and Schrattenholzer, L. 1997. "International Energy Workshop, Part I:Overview of Poll Responses, Part II:Frequency Distributions, Part III:Individual Poll Responses." February, 1997, IIASA.
Manne, A., and Schrattenholzer, L. 1996. "International Energy Workshop January 1996 Poll Edition." IIASA, Laxenburg, Austria.
Manning, M.R., R. Francy and P. Steele, 1998, to be submitted to J Geophys Res for publication
Manning, Martin R. 1997, personal communication.
Marchetti C. (1982) "When will Hydrogen Come?" WP-82-123, International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), Laxenburg, Austria.
Marchetti C. and Nakicenovic N. (1979) "The Dynamics of Energy Systems and the Logistic substitution Model", RR-79-13. Laxenburg, Austria: International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA).
Martin, J.M. 1988. L'intensité énergétique de l'activité économique dans les pays industrialisés: les évolutions de longue période livrent-elles des enseignements utiles?, Série Economie de l’Energie, n° 4, p. 9-27.
Martin, N., Worrell, E., Schipper, L., and Blok, K.: 1995, International Comparisons of Energy Efficiency: Workshop Proceedings, March 6-9, 1994, Berkeley, CA, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory.
Martinerie, P. ,G Brasseur and C Granier, 1995, The Chemical Composition of Ancient Atmospheres: A Model Study Constrained by Ice Core Data, J Geophys Res, 100, 14291-14304.
Maslow, A., 1954: Motivation and Personality, Harper and Row, New York.
Mason, E.S. (1955) "Energy Requirements and Economic Growth." Proceedings of the First United Nations Atoms for Peace Conference, Vol. 1. Geneva.
Masters C.D., Attanasi E.D. and Root D.H (1994) World Petroleum Assessment and Analysis, Proceedings of the 14th World Petroleum Congress, Stavanger, Norway.
Masters C.D., Attanasi E.D., Dietzman W.D., Meyer R.F., Mitchell R.W. and Root D.H. (1987) World Resources of Crude Oil, Natural Gas, Natural Bitumen and Shale Oil. Proceedings of the 12th World Petroleum Congress, Houston, USA, 1987
Mather, A. 1997. "Modeling the Forest Transition." Award Report. University of Aberdeen.
Mather, A., C. Needle, and J. Fairbairn. 1996. "The Human Drivers of Global Land Cover Change: the Case of Forests." Proceedings of IGBP/BAHCX-LUCC Joint Inter-core Projects Symposium, Kyoto, Japan.
Matsuoka, Y. and t. Morita. 1994. "Estimation of Carbon Dioxide Flux from Tropical Deforestation." Center for Global Environmental Research, National Institute for Environmental Studies. CGER-1013.
May, A.D. and C.A.Nash. 1996. "Urban Congestion: A European Perspective on Theory and Practice," Annual Review of Energy and the Environment, 21:239-60, and Maddison et.al.(1996) The True Costs of Road Transport, Blueprint 5, London: Earthscan Publications Ltd.
McDevitt, T. M. (1996), World Population Profile, U.S. Bureau of the Census, Report WP/96 US Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C.
Messner, S. 1996. Endogenized Technological Learning in an Energy Systems Model, in Journal of Evolutionary Economics.
Messner, S. and N. Nakicenovic, 1992. A Comparative Assessment of Different Options to Reduce CO2 Emissions, WP-92-27. International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), Laxenburg, Austria
Messner, S. and M. Strubegger, 1991. "User's Guide to CO2DB: The IIASA Technology Database," Version 1.0, WP-91-31a, International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), Laxenburg, Austria
Meyer R.F. and Duford, J.M. (1988) Resources of Heavy Oil and Natural Bitumen Worldwide, Proceedings of The Fourth UNITAR/UNDP International Conference on Heavy Crude and Tar Sands, Edmonton, Canada, August 1988.
Meyers S., Khrushch, M., L’Heureux, M.A., Martinot, E., Salay, J., Schipper, L, Chyrczakowski, S., and Voracova, Z.: 1995, The Residential Space Heating Problem in Eastern Europe: The Context for Effective Strategies, Berkeley, CA, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL-2095).
Michaelis, L., L. Price, and E. Worrell (1998). Draft Background Papers on World Energy Use for the IPCC Working Group Special Report on Emissions Scenarios. Washington DC, April 29-30, 1998.
Michaelis, L.: 1997, "Special Issues in Carbon/Energy Taxation: Carbon Charges on Aviation Fuel: Policies and Measures for Common Action under the UNFCCC," Working Paper 12, Paris, OECD.
Michaelis, L, Bleviss, D.L., Orfeuil, J-P., and Pischinger, R. 1996a, ‘Mitigation Options in the Transportation Sector’, Climate Change 1995: Impacts, Adaptations and Mitigation of Climate Change: Scientific-Technical Analyses, Contribution of Working Group II to the Second Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Watson, R.T., M. C. Zinyowera, and R.H. Moss (eds.)]. Cambridge and New York, Cambridge University Press.
Michaelis, L. and Davidson, O. 1996b, "GHG Mitigation in the Transport Sector," Energy Policy 24(10-11).
Mock, John E., Jefferson W. Tester and P. Michael Wright (1997). "Geothermal Energy From the Earth: its potential impact as an environmentally sustainable resource." Annual Review of Energy and the Environment. 22:305-56.
Mogridge, M.J.M. 1983. The Car Market, London,Psion.
Mori, S. and M. Takahashi. 1997. "An Integrated Assessment Model for the Evaluation of New Energy Technologies and Food Production." International Journal of Global Energy Issues. January 1997.
Morita, T., Lee,H.-C.:1998, IPCC SRES Database, Version 0.1, Emission Scenario Database prepared for IPCC Special Report on Emission Scenarios convened by Dr. N. Nakicenovic, http://www-cger.nies.go.jp/cger-e/db/ipcc.html
Morita, Tsuneyuki, Yuzuru Matsuoka, Ian Penna and Mikiko Kainuma (1994) "Global Carbon Dioxide Emission Scenarios and Their Basic Assumptions – 1994 Survey. Ibaraki, Japan: Center for Global Environmental Research, National Institute for Environmental Studies, Environmental Agency of Japan.
Morita, Y., Matsuoka, Y., Kainuma, M., Harasawa, H., Kai. H., 1994. "AIM - Asian Pacific integrated model for evaluating policy options to reduce GHG emissions and global warming impacts." In: S. Bhattacharya et al. (eds.) Global Warming Issues in Asia, AIT, Bangkok, pp. 254-273.
Morthorst P.E. and Schleisner L. (1998) "Utilising Off-shore Wind Turbines as an Option to Reduce Pollution," Riso National Laboratory, 4000 Roskilde, Denmark
Mosier, A. C. Kroeze, C. Nevison, O. Oenema, S. Seitzinger, and O. van Cleemput. 199? "Closing the Global N2O Budget: Nitrous Oxide Emissions through the Agricultural Nitrogen Cycle." OECD/IPCC/IEA Phase II, Development of IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories. Submitted to Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems.
Mylona, S., 1996. "Sulphur Dioxide Emissions in Europe 1880-1991 and their Effect on Sulphur Concentrations and Depositions." Tellus 48B:662-689.
Mylona, S., 1993. "Trends in Sulphur Dioxide Emissions,
Air Concentrations and Deposition of Sulfur in Europe Since 1880." EMEP/MSC-W
Report 2/1993. Norwegian Meteorological Institute, Oslo.
Nakicenovic, N., Gruebler, A., and McDonald, A. (editors). 1998. Global Energy Perspectives. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.
Nakicenovic, N., Amann, M., and Fischer, G., 1997. Global Energy Supply and Demand and their Environmental Effects. Mmeo, IIASA, Laxenburg, Austria.
Nakicenovic N. 1996a. "Freeing Energy from Carbon," Daedulus, Vol.125:3,95-122.
Nakicenovic, N., 1996b. ‘Technological Change and Learning.’ In Climate Change: Integrating Science, Economics, and Policy [N. Nakicenovic, W. D. Nordhaus, R. Richels and F.L. Tol (eds.)]. International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Laxenberg, Austria. pp. 271-294.
Nakicenovic, N. and Grübler, A. 1996. ‘Energy and the Protection of the Atmosphere’, NY, United Nations Department for Policy Coordination and Sustainable Development.
Nakicenovic N., Gruebler A., Ishitani H., Johansson T.B., Marland G., Moreira J.R. and Rogner H-H. 1996. "Energy Primer," in Climate Change 1995 - Impacts, Adaptation and Mitigation of Climate Change: Scientific Analysis, (Eds: R T Watson, M C Zinyowera and R H Moss), Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Cambridge University Press, UK.
Nakicenovic, N. 1993a. Decarbonization: Doing More With Less, WP-93-076, December 1993, IIASA, Laxenburg, Austria.
Nakicenovic, N. (ed.). 1993b. "Long-Term Strategies for Mitigating Global Warming," Energy 8, 401-609.
National Research Council (1986), Population growth and economic development: policy questions, Washington, D. C., National Academy Press, 108 pp.
Nelson, R.R. and L.C.G. Soete, 1988: Chapter 28 "Policy Conclusions" in Dosi et al., 1988 (q.v.).
Nelson, R. R. and S.G. Winter, 1982: An Evolutionary Theory of Economic Change, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA.
Nelson, R.R., M. J. Peck and E. D. Kalachek. 1967: Technology, Economic Growth and Public Policy. The Brookings Institute, Washington, DC.
Netherlands Ministry of Economic Affairs, (1997) Renewable Energy - Advancing Power, March 1997.
Nevison, C. D. et al. 1996. "Global Model of Changing N2O Emissions from Natural and Perturbed Soils" Global Environmental Change, 32:327-378.
Newbery, David (1995) "Royal commision on Transport and the Environment – An Economic Critique", mimeo, University of Cambridge.
Newman, P. and Kenworthy, M. 1990. Cities and Automobile Dependence London, Gower.
Nilsson, S. 1997. Personal Communication. IIASA, Laxenburg.
Nordhaus, W. D. (1994), Managing the global commons; the economics of climate change, Cambridge, The MIT Press.
Nordhaus, W. D. and G. W. Yohe (1983), Future Energy Paths and Carbon Dioxide Emissions, In: Changing Climate: Report of the Carbon Dioxide Assessment Committee, Washington, D. C., National Academy Press.
Nordhaus, W.D., and D. Popp (1997). "What is the Value of Scientific Knowledge? An Application to Global Warming Using the PRICE Model." The Energy Journal, Vol. 18 (1), 1-45.
Nussbaum, M. and Sen, A.K. (eds.), 1993: The Quality
of Life, Clarendon Press, Oxford.
Oak Ridge National Laboratory (1997) Scenarios of U.S. Carbon Reductions: Potential Impacts of Energy Technologies by 2010 and Beyond.
Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), 1998: Eco-Efficiency. OECD, Paris.
Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), 1998. Projected Costs of Generating Electricity. Forthcoming, Paris, France.
Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development/Nuclear Energy Agency (OECD/NEA) and International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), 1996. Uranium 1995: Resources, Production and Demand. Paris and Vienna.
OECD. 1996a. First OECD Workshop on Individual Travel Behaviour: "Values, Welfare and Quality of Life", Final Report, OCDE/GD(96)199, OECD, Paris.
OECD. 1996b. Climate Change Policy Initiatives - 1995/96 Update, volume II, "Selected Non-IEA Countries, OECD/IEA, Paris.
OECD. 1991. "Estimation of Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks." Final Report from the OECD Expert Meeting, Paris, 18-21 February, 1991, revised August 1991.
Ogden, Joan M., and Joachim Nitsch (1993) "Solar Hydrogen" in Johansson et. al.(op. cit), Chapter 22, Eduard W. Justi (Editor) (1987) A Solar-Hydrogen Energy System, New York and London: Plenum Press.
OLADE (Latin American Organization for Energy Development).1996. Energia y Desarrollo Sustentable : Una Propuesta Conceptual para America Latina y el Caribe", Quito, Ecuador.
Olivier, J.G.J., Bouwman, A.F., van der Maas, C.W.M., Berdowski, J.J.M., Veldt, C., Bloos, J.P.J., Visschedijk, A.J.H., Zanfeld, P.Y.J., and Haverlag, J.L., 1996. Description of EDGAR Version 2.0: A Set of Global Emission Inventories of Greenhouse Gas Gases and Ozone-depleting Substances for all Anthropogenic and most Natural Sources on a per Country Basis and on a 1x1 grid. RIVM Report No. 771060 002, RIVM, Bilthoven, the Netherlands.
O’Neill, B. C. (1996), Greenhouse Gases: Timescales, Response Functions and the Role of Population Growth in Future Emissions, Ph.D. Thesis, New York University, 211 p.
Organization for Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC), Annual Statistical Bulletin, OPEC, Vienna.
Ouellette N. (1993) "Hydrogen from Remote Excess Hydroelectricity". M.A.Sc. Thesis, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Victoria, Victoria, B.C., Canada.
Ouellette N., Rogner, H-H., and Scott D.S. (1995) Hydrogen from remote excess hydroelectricity. Part I: Production plant capacity and production costs. Int. J. Hydrogen Energy Vol. 20, No. 11, pp. 865-872.
Oum, T.H., Waters, W.G. II and Jong Say Yong: 1990, A
Survey of Recent Estimates of Price Elasticities of Demand for Transport,
Planning and Research Working Paper WPS 359, Washington DC, World Bank.
Palmbeck, Erica L. and Christopher Hope (1996) "PAGE 95: An Updated Valuation of the Impacts of Global Warming." Energy Policy, Vol. 24. No.9 pp. 783-793.
Palmer, K., W.E. Oats and P.R. Portney, 1995: ‘Tightening Environmental Standards: The Benefit-Cost or the No-Cost Paradigm?’ In Journal of Economic Perspectives Vol. 9, No. 4, pp. 119-132.
Palo, M., E. Lehto, and R-R Enroth. 1997. "Scenarios on Tropical Deforestation and Carbon Fluxes." Paper for the Global Modeling Forum, Tokyo.
Park, S.-H., Dissmann, B., Nam, K-Y.:1993, ‘A Cross-Country Decomposition Analysis of Manufacturing Energy Consumption’, Energy18, 843-858.
Peck, S. C., and Teisberg, T. J. 1995. "International CO2 Emissions Control-An Analysis using CETA." Energy Policy, 23(4):297-308.
Pena-Torres, Julio (1997): "Private nuclear electricity in the UK: Risk trade-offs in the future." Centre for Environmental Technology, Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, University of London. Paper presented at the British Nuclear Energy Society’s 1997 Congress, December 4th, London.).
Penner, S.S. et al. 1995. Commercialization of Fuel Cells [Special Issue]. Energy 20(5):331-470. A Report of the U.S. Department of Energy (USDOE) Advanced Fuel-cell Commercialization Working Group.
Pepper, W., Leggett, J. Swart, R., Wasson J., Edmonds, J. and I. Mintzer. 1992. "Emissions Scenarios for the IPCC and Update: Assumptions, Methodology, and Results, Support Document for Chapter A3," Climate Change 1992: Supplementary Report to the IPCC Scientific Assessment, eds. J. T Houghton, B. A. Callandar, S. K. Varney, Cambridge University Press.
Phylipsen, G.J.M., Blok, K. and Worrell, E.: 1997, ‘International Comparisons of Energy Efficiency: Methodologies for the Manufacturing Industry’, Energy Policy 25(7-8), .715-725.
Piccot, S., S. Masemore, E.S. Ringler and D. A. Kirchgessner, 1995, Developing Improved Methane Emission Estimates for Coal Mining Operations, as quoted by IEA Greenhouse Gas R&D Programme, 1996a
Pinto, J. and M. Khalil, 1991, The Stability of Tropospheric OH during Ice Ages, Inter Glacial Epochs and Modern Times, Tellus 43B, 347-352
Population and Development (1995), Program of Action Adopted at the International Conference on Population and Development, Cairo, 5-13 September 1994, v. 1, United Nations Publication No. E.95.XIII.7, New York.
Porter, M. E. and C. van der Linde, 1995: ‘Toward a New Conception of the Environment-Competitiveness Relationship’. In Journal of Economic Perspecitves Vol. 9, No. 4. pp. 97-118.
Posch, M., Hettelingh, J-P., Alcamo, J., and Krol, M., 1996. Integrated scenarios of acidification and climate change in Asia and Europe. Global Environmental Change, Vol.6 No.4:375-394.
Prather, M. R. Derwent, D. Erhalt, P. Fraser, E. Sanhueza and X. Zhou, 1994, Other Trace Gases and Atmospheric Chemistry, in Climate Change 1994 - Radiative Forcing of Climate Change, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
Prinn, R., R.Weiss, B. Miller, J. Huang, F. Alyea, D. Cunnald, P. Fraser, D. Hartley and P. Simmonds, 1995, Atmospheric Trends and Lifetime of CH3CCl3 and Global OH Concentrations, Science, 269, 187-192
The President’s Committee of Advisers on Science and Technology (PCAST) (1997). Federal Energy Research and Development for the Challenges of the Twenty-First
Century. Report to President Clinton. Executive Office to the President. November.
Preston, S. H. (1996), The Effect of Population Growth
on Environmental Quality, Population Research and Policy Review, v. 15,
Renewable Energy Task Force (1997) US President's Committee of Advisors on Science and Technology, Washington, USA, 1997.
Repetto, R., D. Rothman, P. Faeth and D. Austin, 1996: Has Environmental Protection Really Reduced Productivity Growth. World Resources Institute, Washington, DC.
Richels, R., and Edmonds, J. 1995. "The Economics of Stabilizing Atmospheric CO2 Concentrations." Energy Policy, 23(5):373-378.
RIVM: 1998, IMAGE 2.2 Data, provided by Marco Janssen and Bert de Vries, Bilthoven, The Netherlands, RIVM.
Robinson, E.A.G., and G.H. Daniel (1955). "The World’s Need for a New Source of Energy." Proceedings of the First United Nations Atoms for Peace Conference, Vol. 1. Geneva.
Rogner H-H. (1997) An Assessment of World Hydrocarbon Resources. Annual. Review of Energy and Environment. 1997. 22:217-62.
Rogner H-H (1996) "Hydrogen Technologies and the Technology Learning Curve". In Proceedings of the 11th World Hydrogen Energy Conference, Stuttgart, Germany, June 23-28, 1996. Volume 2, pp.1839-1849.
Rogner H-H. (1996) An Assessment of World Hydrocarbon Resources, IIASA Working Paper WP-96-56, May 1996.
Rogner, H.H., and Nakicenovic, N., 1996. Zur Rolle des Schwefels in der Klimadebatte. Energiewirtschaftliche Tagesfragen 46(111):731-735.
Rogner H-H. and Khan, A.M. (1998). "Comparing Energy Options". IAEA Bulletin, Vol. 40, No. 1, pp. 2 - 6. March 1998, Vienna, Austria.
Rosa, L.P. R Schaeffer and M A dos Santios, 1996, Comment: Are Hydroelectric Dams in the Brazilian Amazon Significant Sources of Greenhouse Gases? Environmental Conservation Vol 23 (1).
Rosa, L. and R. Schaeffer, 1994, "Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Hydroelectric Reservoirs," Ambio Vol. 23, No. 2, March 1994.
Rosegrant, M., M. Agcaolili-Sombilla, R. Gerpacio, and C. Ringler, 1997. "Global Food Markets and U.S. Exports in the 21st Century." Revisions of a paper presented at the illinois World Food and Sustainable Agriculture Program Conference, "Meeting the Demand for Food in the 21st Century: Challenges and Opportunities for Illinois Agriculture (IFPRI), Washington, D.C.
Rosegrant, M., M. Agcaolili-Sombilla, and N.D. Perez. 1995. "Global Food Projections to 2020: Implications for Investment." Discussion Paper no. 5, Food, Agriculture and the Environment, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI), Washington, D.C.
Rosenberg, N., 1997. "Economic development and the transfer of technology: some historical perspectives," in Technology and the West [T.S. Reynolds and S. H. Cutcliffe, (eds.)], University Press, Chicago. pp. 251-276.
Rosenberg, N., 1994. "Exploring the Black Box: Technology, Economics and History. " University Press, Cambridge, England.
Rosenberg, 1991. "Critical Issues in Science Policy Research." In Science and Public Policy, vol. 18, no. 6, pp 335-346.
Ross, M.H. and Steinmeyer, D. 1990. "Energy for Industry," Scientific American 263, 89-98.
Rostow, W.W., 1960: The Stages of Economic Growth, University Press, Cambridge.
Rotmans, J. et al. 1994. "Climate Change Implications for Europe-An application of the ESCAPE Model" Global Environmental Change, 4:97-127.
Rotmans, J. and H. J. M. de Vries (Eds.) (1997). Perspectives on global futures: the TARGETS approach. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.
Rubbia, C., 1998. Accelerator Driven Energy Systems. Presentation at the Technical University of Vienna, Austria.
Rudd, J., R. Harris, C. A. Kelly and R. E. Hecky, 1993,
"Are Hydroelectric Reservoirs Significant Sources of Greenhouse Gases?"
Vol. 22, No. 4, June 1993.
Sathaye, J. and Ketoff, A. 1991. "CO2 Emissions from Major Developing Countries: Better Understanding the Role of Energy in the Long Term," The Energy Journal, 12(1): 161-196.
Sathaye, J., Ketoff, A., Schipper, L., and Lele, S. 1989. An End-Use Approach to Development of Long-Term Energy Demand Scenarios for Developing Countries, Berkeley, CA, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBL-25611).
Sathaye, J., Ghirardi, A., and Schipper, L. 1987. "Energy Demand in Developing Countries: A Sectoral Analysis of Recent Trends," Annual Review of Energy 12, 253-81.
Schimel, D. and 26 others, 1995, Radiative Forcing of Climate Change, in Climate Change 1995 - The Science of Climate Change, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
Schipper, L., Ting, M., Khrushch, M., and Golove, W. 1997. "The Evolution of Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Energy Use in Industrialized Countries: an End-Use Analysis’ Energy Policy 25(7-9), 651-672.
Schipper, L., Scholl, L., and Price, L. 1997. "Energy Use and Carbon Emissions from Freight in 10 Industrialized Countries: An Analysis of Trends from 1973 to 1992," Transportation Research-D, 2(1), 57-76.
Schipper, L., Hass, R., and Sheinbaum, C. 1996. "Recent Trends in Residential Energy Use in OECD Countries and Their Impact on Carbon Dioxide Emissions: A Comparative Analysis of the Period 1973-1992," Journal of Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change 1, 167-196.
Schipper, L.J., 1996: Personal communication: Excel spreadsheets containing transport energy data, PASSUM.XLS and FRTSUM.XLS, versions of 9 February 1996. IEA, Paris/LBL, Berkeley, CA.
Schipper, Schipper, L. 1995. "Determinants of Automobile Use and Energy Consumption in OECD Countries." Annu. Rev. of Energy and the Environment, 1995, 20:236-86.
Schipper, L., Figueroa, M.J., Price, L. and Epsey, M. 1993. "Mind the Gap: the Vicious Circle of Measuring Automobile Fuel Use," Energy Policy, 1173-1190.
Schipper, L. and Meyers, S. 1992. Energy Efficiency and Human Activity: Past Trends, Future Prospects, New York, Cambridge University Press.
Schlesinger, M., 1997. Development of Geographical Climate Scenarios for the Impact Analysis of the Energy Modeling Forum 14. Paper presented at the Tokyo Modeling Forum March 14, 1997, Tokyo, Japan. Note: Model runs prepared for the EMF analysis areaccessible through the following ftp address: ftp://crga.atmos.uiuc.edu/pub/emf/
Schrattenholzer, L. and Merchant, K. 1996. "The 1995 International Energy Workshop:The Poll Results and A Review of Papers." OPEC Review XX(1):25-45.
Schroeder, P. 1996. "A Carbon Budget for Brazil: Influence of Future Land-Use Change." Climate Change, 33:369-383.
Schumpeter, J., 1943: Capitalism, Socialism and Democracy.
Schumpeter, J., 1935: ‘The analysis of economic change’, Review of Economic Statistics May, 2-10.
Schumpeter, J., 1928: ‘The Instability of Capitalism’. Economic Journal, vol. XXXVIII no. 151 pp.361-386.
Segal, R.: 1995, ‘Forecasting the Market for Electric Vehicles in California Using Conjoint Analysis’, The Energy Journal16(3), 89-111.
Shainker R.B., Mehta B. and Pollok R. Overview of CAES Technology, Proceedings of the American Power Conference.
Sheinbaum, C. and Rodriguez, L.: 1997, ‘Recent Trends in Mexican Industrial Energy Use and their Impact on Carbon Dioxide Emissions’,Energy Policy 25(7-9), 825-831.
Shell (1996) The Evolution of the World's Energy Systems, Shell International Limited, (extended version to be published)
Shell Briefing Service (1994) "Renewable Energy". SBS No. 1, Shell International Petroleum Company, London, England.
Sedykh, A., V. A. Dinkov, A. I. Gritsenko, G. P. Bosnyatsky and V. M. Maksimov, 1997, Environmental Monitoring in the Gas Industry in Russia, Gas and the Environment, p137, International Gas Union, 20th World Gas Conference Proceedings, Copenhagen, June 1977
Silverberg, G., 1988: ‘Modelling economic dynamics and technical change: mathematical approaches to self-organisation and evolution’, in Dosi et. al., 1988. pp. 531-559.
Sinton, J.E. (ed.), 1996. China Energy Databook. LBL-32822 Rev.4 UC-900, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA.
Sinton, J.E. and Levine, M.D. 1994. "Changing Energy Intensity in Chinese Industry," Energy Policy 21, 239-255.
Smith, Kirk R. (1993) "Fuel Combustion, Air Pollution Exposure, and Health: The Situation in Developing Countries. Annual Review of Energy and the Environment. 18:529-66.
Smith N.J. and Robinson G.H. (1997) Technology Pushes Reserves 'Crunch' Date Back in Time, Oil and Gas Journal, pp. 43-50, 7 April 1997
Solow R. (1988) "Growth Theory and After," American Economic Review, v. 78(3), p. 307-317.
Solow, R.M., 1962: ‘Technical Progress, Capital Formation, and Economic Growth’. American Economic Review Vol. 52, No 2, May 1962.
Solow, Robert M. (1957). "Technical Change and the Aggregate Production Function." Review of Economics and Statistics, 39. (August.)
Solow, R. (1956) "A Contribution to the Theory of Economic Growth," Quarterly Journal of Economics, v. 70, p. 56-94.
Sohngen, B. et al. 1996. "CO2 Emissions from Forests During Climate Change: Including the Role of Market." Working Paper.
Sperling D. (1996) "Desirability - Sustainability" Proceedings of the Conference "Towards Sustainable Transportation" organized by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), Vancouver, B.C., March 24-27, 1996.
Sperling D. (1993) "Fuel Cell Vehicles: Toward A Sustainable Transportation System". Fourth Annual U.S. Hydrogen Meeting, March 25-26, 1993, Washington, DC. Proceedings: The Transition to Commercial Applications prepared by The National Hydrogen Association. TR-103183.
Spiro, P.A., Jacob, D.J., Logan, J.A., 1992. Global inventory of sulfur emissions with 1x1 degree resolution. J.Geophys.Res. 97:6023-6036.
State Statistical Bureau of China. 1996. China Statistical Yearbook 1996, Beijing, State Statistical Bureau.
Stirling, Andrew (1998). "Risk at a Turning Point?" Draft: Science Policy Research Unit, University of Sussex.
Stoll H. and Todd D.M. (1996) Current IGCC Market Competitiveness, General Electric Co, Schenactady, NY, USA, 10 November 1996.
Strang, V., 1997: ‘Cultural theory and modelling practice’, in Giovannini and Baranzini, 1997. pp. 53-70.
Streets, D., 1997, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, US, comment to the first draft of the sulfur discussion paper.
Subak, S., Hulme, M., and Bohn, L., 1997. "The Implications of FCCC Protocol Proposals for Future Global Temperature: Results Considering Alternative Sulfur Forcing." CSERGE Working Paper GEC-97-19. CSERGE University of East Anglia, Norwich, UK.
Szargut, J. and Morris, D.R.: 1987, ‘Cummulative Exergy
Consumption and Cumulative Degree of Perfection in Chemical Processes’,
Research 11, 245-261.
Tainter, J., 1996: ‘Complexity, problem solving and sustainable societies’, in Getting Down to Earth: Practical Applications of Ecological Economics, [R. Costanza, O. Segura and J. Martinez-Alier (eds.)], Island Press, 1996. pp. 61-76.
Tauber, C. and R. Jablonski, 1998. "Brennstoffzellen aus Sicht eines überregionalen EVU." Energiewirtschaftliche Tagesfragen, 48 (1998)1/2, pp. 68 - 74.
The Economist (1992) "The Dawn of the Iron Age". The Economist, p. 115, May 16, 1992. London, UK.
Thompson, A.M. 1992, The Oxydising Capacity of the Earth’s Atmosphere: Probable Past and Future Changes, Science, 256, 1157-1165
Tonooka, Y., 1998. Saitama University, Urawa City, Japan. Personal communication.
Townes H.L. (1995) The Hydrocarbon Era, World Population Growth and Oil Use - A Continuing Geological Challenge, The American Association of Petroleum Geologists Bulletin, Vol. 77, No 5, pp. 723-750.
Trexler, M. and C. Haugen, 1995. "Keeping in Green: Tropical Forestry Opportunities for Mitigating Climate Change." WRI/EPA, Washington, D.C.
Tuppen, C., 1997: Presentation to OECD Workshop on ‘Fostering Eco-Efficiency: the Role of Government’, Paris, 3/4 September.
Turiel, I., Hakim, S. and Fridley, D.: 1998, Preliminary Results from a Bottom-Up Analysis to Determine Residential Energy Consumption in the Emerging Economies of the World, Berkeley, CA, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (to be presented at the American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy 1998 Summer Study on Energy Efficiency in Buildings, August 1998).
Turner A. and John Harford J. BP Solar, UK, 1997 (personal communication).
Turner, B.L. II, D. Skole, S. Sanderson, G. Fischer, L.
Fresco, and R. Leemans. 1995. "Land Use and Land Cover Change" Science/Research
Plan. IGBP Report no. 35, HDP Report no. 7, Stockholm and Geneva.
United National Environmental Program/RIVM. 1997. "The Future of the Global Environment: A Model-Based Analysis Supporting UNEP's First Global Environemtal Outlook." RIVM Report no. 402-000-1007, UNEP.DEIA/TR.97-1, Bilthoven, The Netherlands.
UNIDO: 1997, Industrial Development Global Report 1997, Oxford, UK, Oxford University Press.
United Nations. 1996. U.N. 1996 Revision. New York, NY, U.N.
United Nations (1955). Proceedings of the International Conference on the Peaceful Uses of Atomic Energy. Geneva: United Nations.
United Nations (1957). Proceedings of the Second International Conference on the Peaceful Uses of Atomic Energy. Geneva: United Nations.
United Nations Economic Commission for Europe. 1996. "Energy Balances for Europe and North America 1993, 1994-2010." ECE/Energy/None/96/8.
United States National Research Council (1992), Nuclear Power: Technical and Institutional Options for the Future. Washington DC: National Academy Press.
UN (1997a) Critical Trends: Global Change and Sustainable Development, United Nations Publication ST/ESA/255.
UN (1997b) United Nations Commission on Population and Development, Thirteenth Session, Report of the Secretary General on "Progress on Work in the Field of Population in 1996, p. 8-10.
URANIUM INSTITUTE, 1996. The Global Nuclear Fuel Market - Supply and Demand, Market Report, Uranium Institute, London, UK.
U.S. Congress, Office of Technology Assessment. 1993. Energy Efficiency Technologies for Central and Eastern Europe, Washington, DC, U.S. Government Printing Office (OTA-E-562).
U.S. Congress, Office of Technology Assessment. 1992. Building Energy Efficiency, Washington, DC, U.S. Government Printing Office (OTA-E-518).
U.S. Council of Economic Advisors (1997), Annual Report, Excerpts on the Challenge of an Aging Population, in Population and Development Review, v. 23(2), p. 443-451.
U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Information Administration (EIA) (1998) "International Energy Annual 1996", DOE/EIA-0219(96), February 1998.
U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Information Administration (EIA) (1997) "Annual Energy Outlook", DOE/EIA-0383(98), December 1997.
U.S. Department of Energy: 1995, Effects of Feebates on Vehicle Fuel Economy, Carbon Dioxide Emissions, and Consumer Surplus, Energy Efficiency in the U.S. Economy, Technical Report Two DOE/PO-0031, Washington, DC, U.S. DOE.
U.S. Department of Energy Office of Utility Technologies, Technology Characterizations, US DOE, 1994.
U.S. DOE, Energy Information Administration: 1994, Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey: Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption and Expenditures 1992, Washington, DC, U.S. DOE (DOE/EIA-0318(92)).
U.S. DOE, Energy Information Administration: 1992, Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey: Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption and Expenditures 1989, Washington, DC, U.S. DOE (DOE/EIA-0318(89)).
U.S. EPA Office of Policy Planning and Evaluation. 1994. International Anthropogenic Methane Emissions: Estimates for 1990, EPA 230-R-93-010, January 1994
U.S. EPA. 1993. "Options for Reducing Methane Emissions
Internationally," Volume II: International Opportunities for Reducing
Methane Emissions, EPA 430-R-93-006 B, October 1993.
Van de Vate J.F. (1998) "Full-Chain Greenhouse-Gas Emissions: A Comparison between Nuclear Power, Hydropower, Solar Power, and Wind Power" Accepted for publication in International Journal of Environment and Pollution.
Van Vuren, D.: 1995, ‘Modelling Metal Resource Use’, M.Sc. Thesis, Utrecht, The Netherlands, Department of Science, Technology & Society, Utrecht University.
von Tunzelmann, N., 1996: Engineering and Innovation in the Industrial Revolutions, STEEP Discussion Paper No. 30, Science Policy Research Unit, University of Sussex, Brighton, England.
Vouyoukas, L.: 1993, Elasticities for OECD Aggregate Final Energy Demand, Paris, International Energy Agency.
Vries, de H.J.M., and R. van den Wijngaart (1995). The Targets/IMage1.0-Energy (TIME) model. RIVM Report no. 461502016. Bilthoven
Vries, H. J. M. de, and M.A. Janssen (1996). Global energy futures :
An integrated perspective with the TIME-model. RIVM Report no. 461502017.
Walker S. (1993) Major Coalfields of the World, IEA Coal Research, London, January 1993
Wallace, D., 1995: Environmental Policy and Industrial Innovation: Strategies in Europe, the US and Japan. Energy and Environment Programme, The Royal Institute of International Affairs. Earthscan, London.
Wall, G. 1988. "Exergy Flows in Industrial Processes," Energy 13, 197-208.
Walley, N. and B. Whitehead, 1994: ‘It’s Not Easy Being Green’. In Harvard Business Review, May-June.
Walls, M.A., Krupnick, A.J. and Hood, H.C.: 1993, Estimating the Demand for Vehicle-Miles-Travelled Using Household Survey Data: Results from the 1990 Nationwide Personal Transportation Survey, Resources for the Future discussion paper ENR 93-25, Washington, DC, Resources for the Future.
Walsh, M.P. 1993. "Highway Vehicle Activity Trends and Their Implications for Global Warming: the United States in An International Context," Transportation and Global Climate Change. [D.L. Greene and D.J. Santini (eds.)], Washington, DC, American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy.
Watson, Robert T., Marufu Zinyowera and Richard H. Moss (1996) "Technologies, Policies and Measures for Mitigating Climate Change." Inter-Governmental Panel on Climate Change, Technical Paper 1. United Nations: UNEP/PNUE/OMM/WMO.
Wattenberg, B. J., 1997, The Population Explosion is Over, The New York Times Magazine, November 23, p. 60.
Westinghouse Science & Technology Center, 1997 Solid Oxide Fuel Cell. Westinghouse Web site.
Wexler, L., 1997, Population Assumptions in Greenhouse Gas Emissions Models, submitted manuscript, Population and Development Review.
Wexler, L., 1995, Households, Future Energy Use and Future Greenhouse Gas Emissions, submitted manuscript, IIASA.
Weyant, J.P.,1993: Costs of reducing global carbon emissions. Journal of Economic Perspectives,7(4), 7-46
Wigley, T., A. Jain, F. Joos, P.R. Shukla, and B.S. Nyenzi. 1997. "Implications of Proposed CO2 Emissions Limitations." IPCC Technical Paper (in press).
Wigley T.M., Richels R. and Edmonds J.A. (1996) "Economic and Environmental Choices in the Stabilization of Atmospheric CO2 Concentrations." Nature, 379:240-43.
Wilhite, H., 1997: ‘Framing the socio-cultural context for analyzing energy consumption’, in Giovannini and Baranzini, 1997. pp. 35-52.
Willerboer W. (1997) Future IGCC Concepts, Demkolec BV, The Netherlands.
Williams R.H. and Wells B. 1998. "Solar-Assisted Hydrogen Production from Natural Gas with Low CO2 Emissions". In Proceedings Greenhouse Gas Mitigation: Technologies for Activities Implemented Jointly, Riemer P.W.F., Smith A.Y. and Thambimuthu K.V. (eds), Pergamon, Elsevier, New York.
Williams R.H., Larson E.D, Katofsky, R.E. and Chen J. (1994) "Methanol and Hydrogen from Biomass for Transportation". Bioresources '94, October 3-7, 1994, Bangalore, India.
Williams R.H. (1993) "Fuel Cells, Their Fuels, And The US Automobile". Center for Energy and Environmental Studies, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544, USA.
Williams, A. (Editor). 1993. Methane Emissions, The Watt Committee on Energy, UK.
Williams, R.H., Larson, E.D., and Ross, M.H. 1987. "Materials, Affluence, and Industrial Energy Use," Ann. Rev. Energy 12, 99-144.
Winter C.J. and Nitsch J. eds. (1986) "Wasserstoff als Energieträger". Springer-Verlag, Berlin.
WHO (World Health Organization) and UNEP (United Nations Environment Programme). 1993. Urban Air Pollution in Megacities of the World 2nd edition. Blackwell Publishers, Oxford, UK.
Wödlinger, R., Neubauer, H. and Baumgartner, K. 1997. "Weltweite Angebots-und Nachfragesituation nach Stahl soie nach Rohstoffen und Energieträgern" Berg-und Hüttenmännische Monatshefte 142(7), 284-292.
World Bank 1997. Global Economic Prospects and the Developing Countries. Washington DC.
World Bank 1997. World Development Report: The State in a Changing World. Washington DC.
World Bank 1997. "The World Bank Global Carbon Initiative." Attachments to a speech by James D. Wolfensohn to the UN General Assembly, June 25. World Bank Gobal Environment Division, Washington DC.
World Bank 1997. World Development Indicators. Washington, D.C., 339 p.
World Bank. 1996. World Development Report 1996, From Plan to Market, Oxford University Press.
World Bank. 1996. Rural Energy and Development: Meeting the Energy Needs of 2 Billion People. Washington DC.
World Bank. 1995, World Data 1995. World Bank Indicators on CD-Rom, Washington, DC: The World Bank, International Bank for Reconstruction and Development
World Bank 1993. The World Bank’s Role in the Electric Power Sector: a policy paper." Washington DC: World Bank.
World Bank. 1993. World Development Report. Oxford University Press, New York, USA.
World Bank 1992. World Development Report: Development and the Environment. Washington DC.
World Bank. 1991. World Development Report: The Challenge of Development. Washington DC.
World Energy Council: 1995, Energy Efficiency Utilizing High Technology: An Assessment of Energy Use in Industry and Buildings, Prepared by M.D. Levine, E. Worrell, N. Martin, L. Price, London, WEC.
World Energy Council: 1995, Global Transport Sector Energy Demand Towards 2020, Project 3, Working Group D. London, WEC.
World Energy Council. 1995. Survey of Energy Resources, WEC, London.
World Energy Council. 1994. New Renewable Energy Resources, WEC, London.
World Energy Council. 1993. Energy for Tomorrow's World. World Energy Council (WEC), St. Martin's Press, New York.
World Meteorological Organization (WMO) (D.M. Whelpdale and M.S. Kaiser, eds.), 1997. Global Acid Deposition Assessment. WMO Global Atmospheric Watch No. 106, WMO, Geneva.
World Resources Institute. 1997. "Resource Flows: The Material Basis of Industrial Economies." Washington, DC.
World Resources Institute. 1996. World Resources 1996-1997. Oxford University Press. New York/Oxford.
Worrell, E., Levine, M.D., Price, L.K., Martin, N.C., van den Broek, R., and Blok, K. 1997a. Potential and Policy Implications of Energy and Material Efficiency Improvement, New York, United Nations, Commission for Sustainable Development.
Worrell, E., Price, L., Martin, N., Farla, J., and Schaeffer, R. 1997b. "Energy Intensity in the Iron and Steel Industry: A Comparison of Physical and Economic Indicators," Energy Policy 25 (7-8), 727-744.
Wyman C., Bain R., Hinman N. and Stevens D. (1993) Ethanol
and Methanol from Cellulostic Feedstocks, In Renewable Energy: Sources
for Fuels and Electricity (eds: JohanssonT.B., Kelly H., Reddy A.K.N. and
R H Williams R.H.), Island Press, Washington DC.
Yamaji, K., Matsuhashi, R., Nagata, Y., and Kaya, Y., 1991, "An Integrated Systems for CO2 /Energy/GNP Analysis: Case Studies on Economic Measures for CO2 Reduction in Japan," Paper presented at the Workshop on CO2 Reduction and Removal: Measures for the Next Century, 19-21 March 1991, International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, (IIASA) Laxenburg, Austria.